Only 8.2% of human DNA is likely to be doing something important - is “functional” - say Oxford University researchers.
My comment (2014.07.24):
If ET resembles us, he has similar problems, or he had similar problems. (Hopeless war against the entropy, overpopulation, food and energy deficiency, environmental pollution, crises, conflicts etc.) Possible, we can’t find traces and signs of extraterrestrial civilisations because the entropy destroyed them before they were able to fly to distant solar systems. If this is the truth, we must worry, because our fate will be the same. And after us, only a few lonely Voyager remains in the galaxy. We must use existing knowledges and Occam’s razor too, because the statistical data are not enough in health sciences. The race is on. We will be champions, or the entropy destroys us? I don’t know the answer, but we have little chance to win, if we nourish the entropy longer in our own body. I remember a DDR sci-fi book from the 70’s: Die Ohnmacht der Allmachtigen
Reed more: http://www.science20.com/entropy_and_sodium_intakes_wicked_problems_health_sciences-120016
Projections of Trends in Overweight in the Elderly Population in Germany until 2030 and International Comparison
Rostock Center for the Study of Demographic Change
Konrad-Zuse-Straße 1, 18057 Rostock (Germany)
westphal @ rostockerzentrum.de
Drug companies have begun to share their clinical trial data. The long-overdue shift heralds a new era in medicine
de novo assembly of a polar bear reference genome
Polar bears and brown bears diverged only ca. 400,000 years ago
Genes on the polar bear lineage have been under stronger selection than brown bears
Strong selection in polar bears restructured metabolic and cardiovascular function
Polar bears are uniquely adapted to life in the High Arctic and have undergone drastic physiological changes in response to Arctic climates and a hyperlipid diet of primarily marine mammal prey. We analyzed 89 complete genomes of polar bear and brown bear using population genomic modeling and show that the species diverged only 479–343 thousand years BP. We find that genes on the polar bear lineage have been under stronger positive selection than in brown bears; nine of the top 16 genes under strong positive selection are associated with cardiomyopathy and vascular disease, implying important reorganization of the cardiovascular system. One of the genes showing the strongest evidence of selection, APOB, encodes the primary lipoprotein component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL); functional mutations in APOB may explain how polar bears are able to cope with life-long elevated LDL levels that are associated with high risk of heart disease in humans.”
Intake of fruit, vegetables, and antioxidants and risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis
The consumption of three or more daily servings of fruit or vegetables was not associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes. The intake of antioxidants was associated with a 13% reduction in risk, mainly attributed to vitamin E. These results are not supported by randomized, controlled trials of vitamin supplements, therefore the findings might not be causal, and the discrepancy remains unclear.”
Antioxidant vitamins don’t stress us like plants do - and don’t have their beneficial effect.
Antioxidants prevent health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans
Jian Jin, Zhiguo Ouyang & Zhaoyan Wang: Association of fruit and vegetables with the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer: Evidence from a meta-analysis
Scientific Reports 4, Article number: 5229 doi:10.1038/srep05229
Received 18 February 2014 Accepted 11 April 2014 Published 10 July 2014
From the abstract:
“Our analysis indicated that intake of vegetables and fruit may have a protective effect on NPC. Since the potential biases and confounders could not be ruled out completely in this meta-analysis, further studies are needed.”
From the article:
“For vegetable intake and NPC, data from 10 articles15, 18, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 with 11 case-control studies were used including 3749 NPC cases and 4452 controls. Inverse association of vegetable intake with risk of NPC was reported in 4 studies, and no significant association of vegetable intake with risk of NPC was reported in 7 studies.”
“Four studies reported that fruit intake can reduce the NPC risk, while 6 studies didn’t showed the significant association between fruit intake and NPC risk.”
“Three studies16, 18, 20 were conducted to assess the association between total vegetables and fruit and NPC risk, and the summary RR for the highest versus the lowest intake was 0.33 (95% CI = 0.25–0.45, I2 = 0.0%, Pheterogeneity = 0.56) for fruits and vegetables combined.”
Because less salt in it. But nothing about salt and sodium in the article.
But in the references:
2. Yu, M. C., Ho, J. H., Ross, R. K. & Henderson, B. E. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese - salted fish or inhaled smoke? Prev Med 10, 15–24 (1981).
“The role of two proposed risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Chinese was examined by comparing incidence rates (1974–1975) of NPC among Chinese in Hong Kong with those in Los Angeles County (1972–1976) by age, sex, birthplace, and occupation. In Hong Kong, incidence rates for NPC were highest for persons born outside of the Chiu Chau region in Kwangtung Province. In Los Angeles County, the highest rates were observed for immigrant Chinese followed by indigenous Chinese. The high rates in Hong Kong-born Chinese and in Hong Kong boat people and the much higher rates in men compared with women do not support an inhaled carcinogen as the major risk factor for NPC in southern Chinese. The incidence data coupled with available experimental evidence are most consistent with consumption of Cantonese salted fish as the major etiologic factor.”
21. Jia, W. H. et al. Traditional Cantonese diet and nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk: a large-scale case-control study in Guangdong, China. BMC cancer 10, 446 (2010).
Observations made include the following: 1) consumption of canton-style salted fish, preserved vegetables and preserved/cured meat were significantly associated with increased risk of NPC, with enhanced odds ratios (OR) of 2.45 (95% CI: 2.03-2.94), 3.17(95% CI: 2.68-3.77) and 2.09 (95% CI: 1.22-3.60) respectively in the highest intake frequency stratum during childhood; 2) consumption of fresh fruit was associated with reduced risk with a dose-dependent relationship (p = 0.001); and 3) consumption of Canton-style herbal tea and herbal slow-cooked soup was associated with decreased risk, with ORs of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.68-1.03) and 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.72) respectively in the highest intake frequency stratum. In multivariate analyses, these associations remained significant.
It can be inferred that previously established dietary risk factors in the Cantonese population are still stable and have contributed to the incidence of NPC.”
26. Armstrong, R. W. et al. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese: salted fish and other dietary exposures. International journal of cancer. Int J Cancer 77, 228–235 (1998).
“We interviewed 282 histologically confirmed cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Chinese residents of Selangor and the Federal Territory, Malaysia, and an equal number of Chinese age-, sex-, and length-of-residence-matched controls sampled from the general population. Consumption of 55 dietary items during childhood, and 5 years pre-diagnosis of NPC, was analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. Four salted preserved foods (fish, leafy vegetables, egg and root), fresh pork/beef organ meats and beer and liquor consumption exhibited strong positive associations, and 4 vegetable/fruit combinations strong negative associations with NPC. Factor analysis and multivariable modeling using estimated factor scores strongly supported separate effects on NPC of vegetables/fruits, salted preserved foods, pork/beef organ meats and beer/liquor consumption. Multivariable modeling associated NPC most clearly with high consumption of salted fish, salted eggs, pork/beef liver and beer and low consumption of Chinese flowering cabbage, oranges/tangerines and shrimp. A strong residual association of social class with NPC remained after adjustment for diet, which is consistent with a substantial role for non-dietary environmental factors.”
28. Ning, J. P., Yu, M. C., Wang, Q. S. & Henderson, B. E. Consumption of salted fish and other risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Tianjin, a low-risk region for NPC in the People’s Republic of China. J Natl Cancer Inst 82, 291–296 (1990).
“The dietary habits, occupational exposures, use of tobacco and alcohol, and medical history were compared among 100 patients with histologically confirmed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Tianjin City, People’s Republic of China, and 300 neighborhood controls who were individually matched to the patients with regard to age (within 5 yr), sex, and race (Han). Exposure to salted fish was significantly associated with an increased risk of NPC. Four characteristics of exposure to salted fish independently contributed to the increased risk: (a) earlier age at first exposure, (b) increasing duration of consumption, (c) increasing frequency of consumption, and (d) cooking the fish by steaming it rather than frying, grilling, or boiling it. In addition, significant associations were observed for consumption in childhood of salted shrimp paste (increased risk) and carrots (reduced risk), and the three dietary effects (i.e., those from consumption of salted fish, salted shrimp paste, and carrots) were independent of each other. None of the nondietary factors studied were significantly associated with NPC risk.”
Neurological evidence for chaos in the nervous system is growing.
My comment 2014.07.13.:
Chaos is growing = entropy is growing. And we nourish the entropy in our own body (in every cells).
My comment (is awaiting moderation) 2014.07.15.:
Chaos is growing = entropy is growing. We stopped natural selection (said David Attenborough) = We started our devolution = the entropy (the disharmony) is growing in the human genome. And this will accelerate as in a nuclear bomb the chain reaction, because the devolution is a self-accelerating process. And nobody will be able to stop it. And we nourish the entropy in our own body (in every cells). This is fatal error.
My comment - deleted 2014.07.16