Padre

Scientists show type-1 and type-2 diabetes are caused by same underlying mechanism

http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-08-scientists-type-diabetes-underlying-mechanism.html
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http://www.fasebj.org/content/early/2014/08/18/fj.14-251744.abstract
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“Work by scientists at the Universities of Manchester and Auckland suggest that both major forms of diabetes are the result of the same mechanism.
The findings, published today in the FASEB Journal (20 August), provide compelling evidence that juvenile-onset or type-1 diabetes and type-2 diabetes are both caused by the formation of toxic clumps of a hormone called amylin.
The results, based on 20 years’ work in New Zealand, suggest that type-1 and type-2 diabetes could both be slowed down and potentially reversed by medicines that stop amylin forming these toxic clumps.
Professor Garth Cooper, from The University of Manchester working with his University of Auckland-based research team, led the study.
As well as producing insulin, cells in the pancreas also produce another hormone called amylin. Insulin and amylin normally work together to regulate the body’s response to food intake. If they are no longer produced, then levels of sugar in the blood rise resulting in diabetes and causing damage to organs such as the heart, kidneys, eyes and nerves if blood sugar levels aren’t properly controlled.
However, some of the amylin that is produced can get deposited around cells in the pancreas as toxic clumps, which then, in turn, destroy those cells that produce insulin and amylin. The consequence of this cell death is diabetes.
Research published previously by Professor Cooper suggested that this is the causative mechanism in type-2 diabetes. This new research provides strong evidence that type-1 diabetes results from the same mechanism.
The difference is that the disease starts at an earlier age and progresses more rapidly in type-1 compared to type-2 diabetes because there is more rapid deposition of toxic amylin clumps in the pancreas.
Professor Cooper’s group expects to have potential medicines ready to go into clinical trials in the next two years and it is anticipated that these will be tested in both type-1 and type-2 diabetic patients. These clinical trials are being planned with research groups in England and Scotland.”
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http://www.manchester.ac.uk/discover/news/article/?id=12649
https://www.facebook.com/TheUniversityOfManchester
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“According to the American Heart Association [1], the prevalence of diabetes for all age groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and is projected to be 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. Similar figures have been produced by other groups such as the International Diabetes Federation.”

The role of lactate in boosting memory

http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-08-role-lactate-boosting-memory.html
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” … Our brains are greedy, gobbling up as much as 25% of our daily energy consumption. Neurons and astrocytes thrive on glucose. Neurons use it to protect themselves from the buildup of toxic products resulting from their activity. Astrocytes, which are glial cells (as opposed to neurons), manufacture lactate; this was long thought to be a byproduct of glucose metabolism, and then as a simple energy source for neurons.
In 2011, research published in the journal Cell by EPFL’s Laboratory of Neuroenergetics and Cellular Dynamics in collaboration with a U.S. team unveiled the critical role of lactate. “In vivo, when the transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons is blocked, we found that the memorization process was also blocked,” explains EPFL professor Pierre Magistretti, head of the lab. “We thus knew that it was an essential fuel for that process.”“
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1322912111
http://www.pnas.org/content/111/33/12228.full

US study questions need for most to cut salt

http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-08-salt.html

My comment:
Again the pseudoscience of salt. Dr. Salim, You must think again. This single element (sodium) is perfect food of entropy. The salt is the greatest blunder of Homo Sapiens. The elite of the health science made experimental animals from the humanity. And all of the humanity suffers from Sodium-Induced Disorder Syndrome (SIDS)! The (pseudo)science of salt is the number one perfect example onto the blunders, mistakes and irresponsibilities of the modern health sciences.
http://www.science20.com/entropy_and_sodium_intakes_wicked_problems_health_sciences-120016
http://padre.uw.hu/ekvis/graudal.htm
http://www.rationality.net/entropy.htm
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http://www.cdispatch.com/news/article.asp?aid=35531
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http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/main/news/news_2014/sodium_intake_study.html
Junk science
http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/main/documents/low_sodium_intake_cardiovascular_health_benefit_or_risk.pdf
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https://www.facebook.com/MacHealthSci
https://www.facebook.com/mcmaster.conted
—-http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2014/08/13/salt_guidelines_are_too_low_studies_show.html
kommenteltem

Estimated 1.65 million global cardiovascular deaths each year linked to high sodium consumption

http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-08-million-global-cardiovascular-deaths-year.html
My comment:

2000 mg/day Na is wrong recommendation, the optimum for an adult is not more than 500 mg. The WHO misleads all the humanity. In the scientific literature and in media the salt has political, and astonishing amount pseudo-science, but the pure scientific science of salt we can find only in traces. It’s time to understand (and to teach and to use) some very important but forgotten, ignored and censored knowledges, and the consequences:
1. “Anything that can go wrong not only will go wrong, it must go wrong, as decreed by the Second Law of Thermodynamics,
2. The profound nature of the Second Law manifests itself in every aspect of human existence. Entropy permeates all aspects of human existence.
3. Every biochemical function requires a decrease in entropy, which can only be achieved by the infusion of energy into a life-sustaining system.
4. Wherever we look, whatever we do, we must be acutely aware of the immutable laws of thermodynamics, especially the easily overlooked Second Law: Entropy.”
http://www.rationality.net/entropy.htm
5. The spontaneous diffusion of sodium ions into the cells and the diffusion of potassium ions out of the cells, continuously enhances the entropy (the disorder).
6. The task of the continuously working sodium-potassium pump to keep constant the intracellular concentration of Na and K ions. These cellular pumps continuously use energy of ATP molecules.
7. Excess sodium intake = excess diffusion = excess increase of entropy = excess work for pumps = excess energy expenditure against excess entropy => excess food consumption.
8. But, all the rest of our vital processes (functional processes of the cells) receive less energy - because our capacity (to make energy from foods) is limited (see Kleiber’s Law).
9. Everything work worse in our body, and this increases the incidence of all illnesses without any exception, our aging and devolution accelerate, etc.
10. That is why salt (and other Na-compounds) is perfect food of entropy, and as I wrote on science20, this all is the Sodium-Induced Disorder Syndrome.
http://www.science20.com/entropy_and_sodium_intakes_wicked_problems_health_sciences-120016
The entropy is our number one public enemy on every level (physical and mental health, and social level) globally. Our history and our entire individual life is a continuous war against entropy. The evolution of life on Earth was and is also a continuous war against entropy. But we, humans started our devolution = the entropy is growing in human genome. Even we nourish the entropy in all of our cells (by unnecessary sodium intakes), but the health scientists do not talk about this. And this is a fatal error. It’s time to change that!
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1304127
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Contrary to popular belief, more exercise is not always better

http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-08-contrary-popular-belief.html
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“There is strong epidemiological evidence of the importance of regular physical activity, such as brisk walking and jogging, in the management and rehabilitation of cardiovascular disease and in lowering the risk of death from other diseases such as hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends about 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity exercise or about 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity exercise. But there is clear evidence of an increase in cardiovascular deaths in heart attack survivors who exercise to excess, according to a new study published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings. …”
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.05.006
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.06.004
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.07.007

Heart failure is a substantial health burden in low- and middle-income countries

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-08/p-hfi080514.php
http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-08-heart-failure-substantial-health-burden.html
https://www.facebook.com/medicalxpress
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001699

My comment on PLOS Medicine 2014.08.13. (and on medicalxpress):
http://www.plosmedicine.org/annotation/listThread.action?root=81405

Sodium-Induced Disirder syndrome
In the scientific literature and in media the salt has political, and astonishing amount pseudo-science, but the pure scientific science of salt we can find only in traces.
It’s time to understand (and to teach and to use) some important but forgotten, ignored and censored knowledges, and the consequences:
1. “Anything that can go wrong not only will go wrong, it must go wrong, as decreed by the Second Law of Thermodynamics”
2. “The profound nature of the Second Law manifests itself in every aspect of human existence.” “Entropy permeates all aspects of human existence.”
3. “Every biochemical function requires a decrease in entropy, which can only be achieved by the infusion of energy into a life-sustaining system.”
4. “Wherever we look, whatever we do, we must be acutely aware of the immutable laws of thermodynamics, especially the easily overlooked Second Law: Entropy.”
http://www.rationality.net/entropy.htm
5. The spontaneous diffusion of sodium ions into the cells and the diffusion of potassium ions out of the cells, continuously enhances the entropy (the disorder).
6. The task of the continuously working sodium-potassium pump to keep constant the intracellular concentration of Na and K ions. These cellular pumps continuously use energy of ATP molecules.
7. Excess sodium intake = excess diffusion = excess increase of entropy = excess work for pumps = excess energy expenditure against excess entropy => excess food consumption.
8. But, all the rest of our vital processes (functional processes of the cells) receive less energy - because our capacity (to make energy from foods) is limited (see Kleiber’s Law).
9. Everything work worse in our body, and this increases the incidence of all illnesses without any exception, our aging and devolution accelerate, etc.
10. That is why salt (and other Na-compounds) is perfect food of entropy, and as I wrote on science20, this all is the Sodium-Induced Disorder Syndrome.
http://www.science20.com/entropy_and_sodium_intakes_wicked_problems_health_sciences-120016
The entropy is our number one public enemy on every level (physical and mental health, and social level) globally. Our history and our entire individual life is a continuous war against entropy. The evolution of life on Earth was and is also a continuous war against entropy. But we, humans started our devolution = the entropy is growing in human genome. Even we nourish the entropy in all of our cells (by unnecessary sodium intakes), but the health scientists do not talk about this. And this is a fatal error. It’s time to change that!
——
Will be deleted or not???